2019高考英语专题练习-情态动词辨析(含解析)
作者: 发布时间:2018-09-17 10:29:15 本文来源于:
\

  一、单选题

  1.The need to do what majority of us are doing forces us to take up activities which we ________ otherwise.

  A. won't B. wouldn't C. should D. might

  2.It is usually warm in my hometown in March, but it ______ be rather cold sometimes.

  A. must B. can C. should D. would

  3.It was sad to me that they, so poor themselves, ________ bring me food.

  A. might B. would C. should D. could

  4.The accident have been caused by a dog running across the road, but we don't know for sure.

  A. might B. should C. will D. must

  5.He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free.

  A. could B. would C. must D. need

  6.Tony ________ have thought this book was worth ________ or he wouldn't have read it over and over again.

  A. can;being read B. must;to be read C. may;reading D. must;reading

  7.–Mummy, the toy advertised on TV is really fantastic. Will you buy me one?

  --OK. You __________ have one if you behave well.

  A. might B. must C. could D. shall

  8.Although you ______ find bargains in London, it's not generally a cheap place to shop.

  A. should B. need C. must D. can

  9.It was sad to me that they,so poor themselves, bring me food.

  A. might B. would C. should D. could

  10.I still remember my happy childhood when my mother ________ take me to Disneyland at weekends.

  A. might B. must C. would D. should

  11.—Can I pay the bill by check?

  —Sorry,sir.But it is the management rules of our hotel that payment _____ be made in cash.

  A. shall B. need C. will D. can

  12.— Can you do me a favour, Mr. Smith? My car ______ start.

  — No problem. You can count on it.

  A. won't B. mustn't C. needn't D. shouldn't

  13.—You didn't wait for Tom yesterday.

  —Yes, but we ______. He didn't come.

  A. needn't have B. didn't need to C. could have D. should have

  14.—Lucy doesn't mind lending you her dictionary.

  —She______.I have already borrowed one.

  A. can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. shouldn't

  15.—She looks very happy. She ____have passed the exam.

  —I guess so. It's not difficult after all.

  A. should B. could C. might D. must

  16.My mom suggests that we eat out for a change this weekend.

  A. should B. might C. could D. would

  17.—Excuse me. Is this the right way to the Summer Palace?

  —Sorry, I am not sure, but it ____________ be.

  A. might B. need C. must D. should

  18.—Is Professor Smith giving the speech today?

  —It ____________ be him. He is abroad right now.

  A. needn't B. can't C. wouldn't D. mustn't

  19.— Can I pay the bill by check?

  — Sorry, sir. But it is the management rule of our hotel that payment _____ be made in cash.

  A. can B. shall C. must D. need

  20.Come here, Mary. If you stand at this angle, you ______ just see the sunset.

  A. must B. need C. can D. should

  21.—Why does she look so angry after reading Still Alice?

  —She ________ be. She ________ be missing her grandma who has Alzheimer's.

  A. can't; must B. mustn't; can C. shouldn't; should D. can't; would

  22.We ______the difficulty together, but why didn't you call me?

  A. should face B. might face C. must have faced D. might have faced

  23.English is a language that many people around the world ___________ not speak perfectly but ___________ at least understand.

  A. may; can B. would; might C. will; must D. could; might

  24.—Mom, who won the first place in the TV show I' m a singer?

  —It ________ be Han Hong, but I' m not sure. Last Friday I missed it.

  A. might B. must C. should

  25.—Who's the man giving the speech?

  —Well, if you ______know, his name is Lyric.

  A. may B. can C. shall D. must

  26.—John, look at the time. _____ you play the piano at such a late hour?

  —Oh, sorry.

  A. Must B. Can C. May D. Shall

  27.— I've prepared all kinds of food for the picnic.

  —Do you mean we_____ bring anything with us?

  A. can't B. mustn't C. shan't D. needn't

  28.—What do you think of Betty?

  —She is a lovely girl, though she ________be naughty sometimes.

  A. should B. must C. need D. can

  29.—Remind me to buy a bottle of wine for the party this weekend.

  —I ________.

  A. can B. must C. should D. will

  30.—Do you think the phone is genuine?

  —I don't think it________be a fake,as this shop has a very good reputation.

  A. must B. can C. might D. would

  31.—I feel cold. ____ I close the window?

  —Sure. Go ahead!

  A. Shall B. Need C. Would D. Should

  32.John, look at the time. ______ you play the piano at such a late hour?

  A. Must B. Can C. May D. Need

  33.Today, we live in a time when we can own any movie we wish.But in the theater, movies own us.

  A. shall B. should C. must D. may

  34.I often see lights in that empty house. Do you think I ____________ report it to the police?

  A. should B. may C. would D. can

  答案解析部分

  一、单选题

  1.The need to do what majority of us are doing forces us to take up activities which we ________ otherwise.

  A. won't B. wouldn't C. should D. might

  【答案】B

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:做我们大多数正在做的事情的必要性迫使我们做一些我们不愿做的事情。通过分析句子,该句主句使用一般现在时,陈述客观情况,而不愿做的事情是之前的,因而用一般过去时,故选B。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分won't;wouldn't;should;might的含义和应用。

  2.It is usually warm in my hometown in March, but it ______ be rather cold sometimes.

  A. must B. can C. should D. would

  【答案】B

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】A. must一定;B. can 可能;有时会;C. should应该;D. would将会。句意:在我的家乡,3月通常天气温暖,但是有时也可能很冷。根据句意选B。

  3.It was sad to me that they, so poor themselves, ________ bring me food.

  A. might B. would C. should D. could

  【答案】C

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:他们,自己如此的贫困,竟然带食物给我,让我很难过。A. might“也许”;B. would“将”;C. should“竟然,居然”(用于表示必要、适当、惊奇、遗憾等语气中);D. could“能够”。根据句意,C正确。

  【点评】考查情态动词辨析,区分might,would,should,could的含义和用法。

  4.The accident have been caused by a dog running across the road, but we don't know for sure.

  A. might B. should C. will D. must

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析,单项选择型

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词与虚拟。句意:事故可能是由一条横穿马路的狗引起的,但我们不确定。分析句子可知,本句是对过去动作的推测的可能性不大。表对过去的推测有must(可能性大,“一定”),might/may(可能性小,意为“可能,也许”),这两词用于肯定句。对过去动作的推测要用情态动词+have done ,故答案选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词+have done的用法。注意:各个情态动词词义不同其后接完成时所表达的意思不同和使用也不相同。

  5.He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free.

  A. could B. would C. must D. need

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词havedone的用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词。事实上.他没能免费进入,所以他免费进入只是一种假设,要用虚拟语气。横线处可以填could,should表示虚拟,.故选A

  6.Tony ________ have thought this book was worth ________ or he wouldn't have read it over and over again.

  A. can;being read B. must;to be read C. may;reading D. must;reading

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词havedone的用法,情态动词的辨析,动名词,非谓语动词

  【解析】【分析】句意:Tony一定认为这本书值得一读,否则他就不会反复读这本书了。根据he wouldn't have read it over and over again.可知,第一空是肯定的推测用must;be worth doing值得做某事。故答案为D。

  【点评】考查情态动词和动名词。认识情态动词+have+过去分词的基本含义,牢记固定搭配。

  7.–Mummy, the toy advertised on TV is really fantastic. Will you buy me one?

  --OK. You __________ have one if you behave well.

  A. might B. must C. could D. shall

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词。—妈妈,电视广告上的玩具真是太棒了。你能给我买一个吗?—好的。你如果表现好你可以买一个。might表示可能,可以;must必须,一定,偏偏,非要;could“can”的过去式表示能够,可以。但could和might的区别是could较might的可能性强。

  8.Although you ______ find bargains in London, it's not generally a cheap place to shop.

  A. should B. need C. must D. can

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:尽管你能在伦敦找到便宜货,但是一般不是购物便宜的地方。此处can意为:能。根据句意选D。

  【点评】考查情态动词辨析,区分should,need,must,can的含义和用法。

  9.It was sad to me that they,so poor themselves, bring me food.

  A. might B. would C. should D. could

  【答案】C

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词用法。A. might也许;B. would将;C. should竟然,居然(用于表示必要、适当、惊奇、遗憾等语气中);D. could能够。句意:他们,自己如此的贫困,竟然带食物给我,让我很难过。故C正确。

  10.I still remember my happy childhood when my mother ________ take me to Disneyland at weekends.

  A. might B. must C. would D. should

  【答案】C

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:我仍然记得我幸福的童年,那时妈妈会在周末的时候带我去迪士尼乐园。A.可能;B.必须;C.将,会;D.应该。would可以表示“过去常常”,强调过去经常发生的事情。根据语境判断此处指过去妈妈经常在周末带他去,故选C。

  【点评】考查情态动词。

  11.—Can I pay the bill by check?

  —Sorry,sir.But it is the management rules of our hotel that payment _____ be made in cash.

  A. shall B. need C. will D. can

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:—我可以用信用卡付账吗?—对不起,先生。用现金付账是我们旅馆的管理制度。A. shall“将”;B. need“需要”;C. will“将”;D.can“能够”。根据内容可知此处是制度规定,而shall用在句中可以表示“按照规章制度规定的内容”,故答案选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词辨析,区分shall,need,will,can的含义和用法。

  12.— Can you do me a favour, Mr. Smith? My car ______ start.

  — No problem. You can count on it.

  A. won't B. mustn't C. needn't D. shouldn't

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——史密斯先生,你能帮一下忙吗?我的车发动不起来了。——没问题。你尽管放心。mustn't “禁止”;needn't“不需要”;shouldn't“不应该”;will作情态动词可以表示习惯或倾向性,其否定式won't是对此刻和未来情况的一种否定,结合句意,选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分won't;mustn't;needn't;shouldn't的含义和应用。

  13.—You didn't wait for Tom yesterday.

  —Yes, but we ______. He didn't come.

  A. needn't have B. didn't need to C. could have D. should have

  【答案】B

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:—你们昨天没有等汤姆。—是的,但是我们没必要这么做。他昨天根本就没有来。needn't have是完成时needn't have done的省略,"本不需要做但已经做了"; didn't need to过去式,"没必要";could have 是完成时could have done的省略,"本可以做而没有做";should have是完成时should have done的省略,"本应该做而没有做"。根据语境表示没有必要,故选B。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分needn't have,didn't need to ,could have,should have的含义和应用。

  14.—Lucy doesn't mind lending you her dictionary.

  —She______.I have already borrowed one.

  A. can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. shouldn't

  【答案】C

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词。can't不会,不可能;mustn't不准,禁止;shouldn't不应该,均与句意不符。C项表示“不必,不需要”,符合句意:她不必把她的字典借给我了,我已经借了一本。

  15.—She looks very happy. She ____have passed the exam.

  —I guess so. It's not difficult after all.

  A. should B. could C. might D. must

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词havedone的用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词。本句考查情态动词表猜测。情态动词表猜测有以下情况:表肯定猜测用must、表否定推测用can't、couldn't;表可能用may、might;疑问句中表可能用can、could;表应该用should。本句中根据she looks very happy可知她看起来很开心,所以下文是很肯定的猜测,她肯定通过了考试。故选择D。

  16.My mom suggests that we eat out for a change this weekend.

  A. should B. might C. could D. would

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:我妈妈建议这个周末我们到外面吃饭来做一个改变。suggest后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气(should )+动词原形,故选A

  【点评】考查情态动词辨析,以及suggest作“建议”解时,后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气(should )+动词原形。

  17.—Excuse me. Is this the right way to the Summer Palace?

  —Sorry, I am not sure, but it ____________ be.

  A. might B. need C. must D. should

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——对不起,这是去颐和园的正确道路吗?——对不起,我不确定,但可能是。A. might可能;B. need需要;C. must必须;D. should应该。根据前面的I am not sure可知,答话人并不确定,只有A项可以表示“可能”,故答案选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词。根据说话者的语气,结合语境填出。

  18.—Is Professor Smith giving the speech today?

  —It ____________ be him. He is abroad right now.

  A. needn't B. can't C. wouldn't D. mustn't

  【答案】B

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——史密斯教授今天做演讲吗?——那是不可能的,他现在在国外。A. needn't不必;B. can't 不可能;C. wouldn't将不;D. mustn't禁止。这里根据He is abroad right now.所以确定不可能是他,故答案选B。

  【点评】考查情态动词。注意情态动词的选用要结合语境,说话人的语气,及情态动词的用法选出相应的词。

  19.— Can I pay the bill by check?

  — Sorry, sir. But it is the management rule of our hotel that payment _____ be made in cash.

  A. can B. shall C. must D. need

  【答案】B

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:—我能用支票付款吗?—对不起,我们酒店的管理规定是一定要用现金付款。情态动词can表示能力或客观可能性“会,可能”。 shall 用于第二、三人称,表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺或威胁;must 表示义务、必须、必要;need作情态动词用时, 常用于疑问句、否定句。在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to, should代替。根据the management rule可知这里不是指有义务,必要付现金,而是表示管理规定命令。

  【点评】考查情态动词。

  20.Come here, Mary. If you stand at this angle, you ______ just see the sunset.

  A. must B. need C. can D. should

  【答案】C

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:玛丽,到这儿来。如果你站在这个角度,就能看到日落。A. must“必须”;B. need“需要”;C. can“能,会”;D. should“应该”。根据句意可知,此处应该表示能够,故选C。

  【点评】考查情态动词辨析,区分must;need;can;should的含义和用法。

  21.—Why does she look so angry after reading Still Alice?

  —She ________ be. She ________ be missing her grandma who has Alzheimer's.

  A. can't; must B. mustn't; can C. shouldn't; should D. can't; would

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:—她读了Still Alice之后为什么看上去如此生气?—她不可能生气。她一定是在想念她那患老年痴呆的奶奶。第一空用can't表示不可能,表示有把握的否定推测;第二空用must表示“必须,一定”,表示有把握的肯定推测。由此可知答案为A。

  【点评】考查情态动词,本题涉及can't 和must的应用。

  22.We ______the difficulty together, but why didn't you call me?

  A. should face B. might face C. must have faced D. might have faced

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词havedone的用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:我们本可以一起面对困难,但是为什么你不给我打电话? 根据why didn't you call me?中的过去时可知本书是对过去情况进行虚拟,故D正确. must have done一定做了某事;might have done本可以做,实际上却未做;结合句意可知D正确.

  【点评】情态动词+have+done现将其用法总结归纳如下:

  一、 “must+have+done”表示对过去事情的肯定推测,译成“一定做过某事”,该结构只用于肯定句。 It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 昨晚一定下雨了,因为地面还是湿的。

  二、 “can't+have+done”表示对过去事情的否定推测,译成“不可能做过某事”。Mr. Smith can't have gone to Beijing, for I saw him in the library just now. 史密斯先生不可能去北京了,我刚才还在图书馆见过他。

  三、 “can+have+done”表示对过去行为的怀疑,用于疑问句,译成“可能做过……吗?”。There is no light in the room. Can they have gone out? 屋里没有灯,他们可能出去了吗?

  四、 “could+have+done”是虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是本来能够做某事而没有做。He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试,但是他太粗心。

  五、 “may+have+done”表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是“可能已经”或“也许已经”,用于肯定句中。—What has happened to George?—I don't know. He may have got lost.—乔治发生了什么事?——我不知道,他可能迷路了。

  六、 “might+have+done”表示对过去事情的推测,might与may意思相同,但可能性更小。多用于虚拟语气结构中。 He might have given you more help, even though he was busy. (MET90) 他或许会多给你一些帮助,即使他很忙。

  七、 “would+have+done”虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是“本来会做”。I would have told you all about the boy's story, but you didn't ask me. 我本来会告诉你这个小男孩的故事,但是你没有问我。

  八、 “should+have+done”意思是“本来应该做某事,而实际没做。” “shouldn't+have+done”表示本来不应该做某事,而实际做了。含有指责对方或自责的含意。Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn't have been so harsh on him. 看,汤姆哭了,我本来不应该对他如此严厉。

  九、 “ought to+have+done”表示过去应该做而实际并没有做,译成“理应做……”,往往表示遗憾。与“should+have+done”用法基本一样。I ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期日回家。

  十、 “need+have+done”表示本来需要做某事而没有做。“needn't+have+done”则表示“本来不需要做某事而做了”。I needn't have bought so much wine—only five people came. 我本来没有必要买这么多酒,只来了五个人。

  23.English is a language that many people around the world ___________ not speak perfectly but ___________ at least understand.

  A. may; can B. would; might C. will; must D. could; might

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:英语是一种语言,世界各地的许多年轻人可能讲不完美但至少可能理解。may表猜测,意思是"可能","也许";can表能力。故选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分may; can;would; might;will; must;could; might的含义和应用。

  24.—Mom, who won the first place in the TV show I' m a singer?

  —It ________ be Han Hong, but I' m not sure. Last Friday I missed it.

  A. might B. must C. should

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:—妈妈,谁在《我是歌手》获得了第一名?—可能是韩红,我也不确定。上周我错过了这个节目。A. might可能;B. must一定;C. should应该。此处表示不太肯定的推测,故选might。must表示非常肯定的猜测;should应该。故选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词辨析

  25.—Who's the man giving the speech?

  —Well, if you ______know, his name is Lyric.

  A. may B. can C. shall D. must

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——正做报告的那个人是谁?——哦,如果你非要知道的话,他的名字是Lyric。must表示不愿意发生或不耐烦,“偏要,硬要”,故选D。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分may;can;shall;must的含义和应用。

  26.—John, look at the time. _____ you play the piano at such a late hour?

  —Oh, sorry.

  A. Must B. Can C. May D. Shall

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词。句意:John,看看时间,你非要在这么晚的时候弹钢琴吗?噢,对不起。Must偏偏,非得,说话人有埋怨并命令对方停止之意,故选A项。

  27.— I've prepared all kinds of food for the picnic.

  —Do you mean we_____ bring anything with us?

  A. can't B. mustn't C. shan't D. needn't

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——我已经准备好野餐的各种食物了。——你的意思是我们不必带任何东西了?A. can't“不能够”;B. mustn't“ 不许,不可以”;C. shan't“将不”;D. needn't“不必”。故D正确。

  【点评】考查情态动词辨析,区分can't,mustn't,shan't、needn't的含义和用法。

  28.—What do you think of Betty?

  —She is a lovely girl, though she ________be naughty sometimes.

  A. should B. must C. need D. can

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——你认为 Betty怎么样?——她是一个可爱的女孩,尽管有时候可能淘气。A. should ”应该,想必会,理应“;B. must” 必须,一定“; C.情态动词 need,通常用在疑问句、否定句中,意为“必须”;C. can ”能,会,可能“。句中描述的Betty应该是一个可爱但有时会有些调皮的女孩,结合句意,此处应该是填一个表示推测的情态动词,can用于肯定句,表示理论上存在的可能性,所以适用于本句;should,must都可以表示推测,但在这里不合语意。故选D。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分should,must,need,can的含义和应用。

  29.—Remind me to buy a bottle of wine for the party this weekend.

  —I ________.

  A. can B. must C. should D. will

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——记得提醒我会周末聚会买瓶酒。——我会的。A. can“能,会”;B. must“一定,必须”;C. should“应该”;D. will“将要”。表示主观上的一种将要做某事,故选D。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分can,must,should,will的含义和使用。

  30.—Do you think the phone is genuine?

  —I don't think it________be a fake,as this shop has a very good reputation.

  A. must B. can C. might D. would

  【答案】B

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词。语意:—你认为这部手机是正品吗?—我认为它不可能是假货,因为这家店有非常好的信誉。根据语意可知,应选择can,I don't think中的否定是否定转移,can用于否定句表示“不可能”。根据句意可知选B。

  31.—I feel cold. ____ I close the window?

  —Sure. Go ahead!

  A. Shall B. Need C. Would D. Should

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:——我感到冷。我可以把窗户关住吗?——当然可以,关吧。shall用于问句的第一、三人称中表示征求建议、许可。故选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分shall,need,would,should的含义和应用。

  32.John, look at the time. ______ you play the piano at such a late hour?

  A. Must B. Can C. May D. Need

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的基本用法,情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】考查情态动词。本题关键要理解短语look at the time“看看时间”,蕴含的语气有“不满”的情绪,语言比较粗暴。must“偏偏,非要”,有厌烦、不满的情绪。其他三个选项都较礼貌,不符合本题的语境。故选A。

  33.Today, we live in a time when we can own any movie we wish.But in the theater, movies own us.

  A. shall B. should C. must D. may

  【答案】D

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:今天,我们可能生活在一个这样的时代,在这个时代我们可以拥有我们希望的任何电影。故答案选D。

  【点评】考查情态动词,区分shall;should;must;may的含义和应用。

  34.I often see lights in that empty house. Do you think I ____________ report it to the police?

  A. should B. may C. would D. can

  【答案】A

  【考点】情态动词的辨析

  【解析】【分析】句意:我经常看到那间空房子里有灯光。你认为我应当把这事儿报告给警察吗?A. should应该;B. may可以;C. would将要; D. can能够。因为看到空房子里有灯光,是一件奇怪而令人生疑的事,故问:你是否认为我应当把这事儿报告给警察?故答案选A。

  【点评】考查情态动词。注意情态动词的选用要结合语境,牢记一些固定搭配。

[《高中生》杂志·新高考网 责任编辑:周丹]

关于我们 - 关于《高中生》杂志社 - 联系我们 - 编辑热线 - 投稿

copyright 2010-2016 中共湖南省委宣传部、湖南省教育厅主管,湖南教育报刊集团主办,《高中生》杂志社承办
ALL Rights Reserved

互联网出版许可证:新出版网证(湘)字017号 湘ICP备10000103号