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高中英语完形填空正解72字顺口溜,早看早受益!
作者: 发布时间:2018-08-10 08:16:40 本文来源于:

 

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  一. 完形填空传统教学方法的误区

  大家都知道全国标准化高考英语完形填空源于大学完形试题,是出题人故意刁难考生设下的重重陷阱试题之一,满分30分。共20小题,每一组选项四个入选答案,主要考察动词,名词,形容词,副词,介词,连词,每组选项的词性相同,每组四个选项甚至至少两个词义相近。每小题1.5分,去掉听力30分,在120分的笔试中,完形填空占据了,四分之一的分值。其目的当然是为了符合“高考是选拔性考试”这一根本目标,所以故意设计交叉陷阱,让高生在此题拉开档次,以便选拔英语人才,也就无可厚非了。但是在传统教学方法中 ,绝大多数老师采取的方法都是:

  1. 先看答案,然后边翻译,边看每一个选项,给学生一个一个讲为何选择答案的原因,结果是:实际考试中这种方法耗费时间,得出正确答案的准确率非常低。因为我们发现许多老师也陷入了在每四个入选答案中,有两个及其相似的答案无法选出正确的一个。

  2. 名校学生与名校老师课堂引起争议,甚至老师无所适从,无法解释正确答案。

  3. 学生苦练刷题,意图提高完形解析能力,结果是:简单完形对一串;难题完形一错错一串,伤害自尊后,放弃完形,最后只能考场依靠运气得分。

  我们看看完形填空鼓励振奋学生之菜鸟基础篇:

  Christmas was near. A lady, a friend of the lady and a little girl were shopping in a large shopping center.

  After a tiring morning of gift buying, the three 41 to get a bite. They went to 42 in the center. They were 43 when a skinny and dirty boy came up and said to the lady,” Madam, I am hungry. Could you 44 some coins for food? “Without a moment of45 ,the lady reached into her purse, took out a handful of coins and 46 them in the boy’s hand. This 47 didn’t take the little girl by surprise because she was 48 to the lady’s acts of kindness, but the friend of the lady considered her foolish. “How can you be so 49 ?” she said.

  Once they were seated, the fiend of the lady 50 telling the lady how she still considered her foolish. Then her criticism was 51 by the same boy. He asked 52 if the lady could give him a little more for a coke.

  With a smile on her face, the lady got out of her seat, and 53 the boy to the food counter. There she 54 him a large coke and some tasty food. Years later, this 55 is still fresh in the little girl’s mind.

  I’m that little girl. I don’t give 56 children money when they ask for some. 57 ,I walked to the closest food place and buy them the whole meal. I’m afraid I don’t give them enough money for a coke and they might not have the 58 to come back for more. These children should 59 those meals to a lady once considered foolish. I’m 60 to call that lady “Mom”.

  41 . A demanded B decided

  C. managed D. promised

  42. A. bank B. garage

  C. bookshop D. cafeteria

  43. A. turning up B. queuing up

  C. breaking up D. joining up

  44. A. spare B. lend

  C. pass D. award

  45. A. regret B. discomfort

  C. disagreement D. hesitation

  46. A. placed B. threw

  C. counted D. pressed

  47. A. gesture B. experience

  C. action D. motivation

  48. A. equal B. used

  C. familiar D. devoted

  49. A. reliable B. independent

  C. peaceful D. trusting

  50. A. continued B. admitted

  C. delayed D. mentioned

  51. A. resisted B. interrupted

  C. ignored D. forbidden

  52. A. patiently B. painfully

  C. shyly D. wisely

  53. A. accompanied B. sent

  C. attracted D. dragged

  54. A. made B. left

  C. bought D. gave

  55. A. view B. outline

  C. impression D. scene

  56. A. sad B. needy

  C. brave D. honest

  57. A. Besides B. However

  C. Therefore D. Instead

  58. A. pressure B. right

  C. courage D. truth

  59. A. owe B. show

  C. return D. tend

  60. A. eager B. willing

  C. proud D. curious

  这一篇完形是非常简单的,同学们能够对一大串,用传统思路解析很顺畅,但是老师和同学们仍然出现纠结的答案,例如:49,52小题,其中,49到底用reliable,还是trusting?52到底用shyly,还是patiently?他们都是近义词,49两个词是可以依靠的,不过词法基础好,逻辑清晰的学生就可以做对了,选trusting。52就不好办了,大家争论起来,最后还是依靠后面文段中的courage,选出52应该是shyly。但是也耽误了考试时间,那逻辑基础不好的呢?结果可想而知了。如果我们用解完形填空创新妙招72字真经,这几个菜鸟试题,几乎不看选项就直接得出:49trusting 52 shyly。

  为了证明我们为大家奉献创新完形解析方法的紧迫性,必然性,实效性,我们先看看高考真题的完形利用传统完形解析方法的危害结果又是什么样的呢?

  The question of whether war is inevitable is one which has concerned many of the world’s great writers. Before 36 this question, it will be useful to introduce some 37 concepts. Conflict, 38 as opposition among social units or individuals directed against one another, is 39 from competition, which 40 opposition among social units 41 seeking to obtain something which is 42 inadequate supply. Competitors may not know about one another, while those who 43 in a conflict do. Conflict and competition are both 44 of opposition. The meaning of opposition has been stated as a process by which social units function in the disservice of one another, opposition is 45 contrasted to cooperation, a 46 by which social units function in the service of one another. These 47 are necessary because it is important to emphasize that competition between individuals or groups is inevitable in a world of limited 48 , but conflict isn’t . Conflict, nevertheless, is very likely to occur and is probably an essential and desirable 49 of human societies.

  Many authors have 50 their arguments that war cannot be avoided on the idea that in the struggle for existence among groups of animals, only those which are best 51remain alive. In general, however, this struggle in nature is competition, not conflict. Those who fail in this competition 52 starve to death or are 53 by other types of animals. This struggle for 54 is not similar to human war, but is like the competition of 55 for jobs, markets, and materials. The most important quality of this struggle is the competition for the necessities of life that are not enough to satisfy all.

\

  用传统的边翻译、边看每一个选项的辨析方法的结果是:第一组选项就遇到了瓶颈。基础不好的学生直接选择了answering,基础好的学生就会纠结于answering,considering这两个答案究竟选什么?在一次实际调查分析中,我发现用此篇完形考察经验丰富的老师,调查结果是:百分之70 的老师也纠结了!老师都纠结了,学生怎么办?老师们解析时候看着答案,结果类似的纠结还体现在38,39,40,41,43,44,45,46,47,49,54,老师们争论不休,无法合理解释答案的准确得出,那让我们学生怎么办?很明显被广泛使用的传统完形解析方法,在高考真题面前体无完肤,一败涂地。

  那么完形填空的解析创新妙招如何准确处理这样的高考真题,力图得到高分,满分呢?

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  完形填空解析顺口溜72字妙招

  浏览统属,主旨清楚;选项不瞩,内在联铺;上下百度,逻辑上浮;瞻前后顾,逻法审度;生词重复,构词归属;合理得出,前后围堵;答案自出,避实就熟;跳空填补,审核为主;通盘顺路,查缺漏堵!

  一. 浏览统属, 主旨清楚

  我们有句俗语是“只见树木,不见森林”这也是我们做完型填空是很容易犯的错误。 众所周知,完型填空是一篇内容完整,情感饱满,逻辑顺畅,上下贯通,浑然一体的文章,因此,当我们拿到一篇完型阅读时,必须先要通读全文,不要着急看选项。不仅要从内容上大概了解文章所云何事,也要从整体上把握文章所要表达的情感态度和观点,更要从结构上剖析并搞清楚文章上下文之间的整体 的逻辑关系,这样就可以从战略高度俯视全篇,做到心中有数(术),从容应对。也就是说,我们一定要先做到“心有全局,抓住中心思想,只见森林”,不看孤立树木。例如高考上述真题,浏览统属,主旨清楚,开篇主旨:The question of whether war is inevitable is one which has concerned many of the world’s great writers.

  完形填空是一篇完整的阅读文章,当然符合阅读文章的主旨浮现的五大规律:总分总,分总分,分分总,总分分,分分分。其中总就是中心思想。除了分分分,是简单的阅读,其他四种我们分析发现:中心思想的找寻我们基本锁定文章的首尾开头。因此分析这篇真题完形,我们不难看出中心思想就在开头这句话。结尾段落进一步解释升华开头的这句中心思想。属于总分总的阅读文章规律。把握了中心思想,一切分析就有了水到渠成,准确而顺畅的思路(浏览统属, 主旨清楚)。

  二. 选项不瞩,内在联铺

  语篇当然指整篇文章的完整性。切忌上来就一句一句的读文章,一空一空的看选项,这是做完型之大忌。记住一定要通读全文(先究森林,后研树木)!进行完第一个环节之后,我们对文章的整体内容,所表达的观点态度和逻辑关系就有了一个整体的掌握和把控,这就是所说的语篇阅读。接下来就是句,句是指横线所在的完整句子。在胸有全局即掌握了文章整体语境和逻辑关系的前提下,仔细阅读选项所在的完整的句子(这也是一个微语境),对句意有一个完整的理解后,再去看选项所在的那一行,(再见树木),这样经过由大到小、由外到内,有宏观到微观的综合考量之后才可能做出一个正确的选择。

  例如:

  Before 36 this question, it will be useful to introduce some 37 concepts. Conflict, 38 as opposition among social units or individuals directed against one another, is 39 from competition, which 40 opposition among social units 41 seeking to obtain something which is 42 inadequate supply. Competitors may not know about one another, while those who 43 in a conflict do. Conflict and competition are both 44 of opposition.

  即使我们不看选项(选项不瞩),我们发现,通过句与句的内在逻辑联系,这一段是在给我们介绍三个概念Conflict,competition, competition之间的内在联系,即:opposition =Conflict+competition*具体方法:在研读句与句的内在联铺(句与句内在逻辑联系铺开思索,)注意前后呼应,语意关联!那么,我们就理出来一个简单的逻辑分析常识:解决问题的基本是:假如一个问题是用一个文段表述:该文段包括句子,句子由概念组成。就是集合问题等于子集句子,元素概念的整合。我们应该遵循:在研究弄明白问题之前,先搞清问题中的元素--概念!然后根据理解了问题的元素概念后,在理解问题子集句子,理解句子之后,再总体掌握文段问题的主旨,最后再解决回答集合问题。----这就是解决问题的逻辑常识思路。所以我们应该先看37后面的意思是:介绍三个概念,当然就应该是在考虑研究问题之前,我们先看看概念这样一个逻辑思路!因此37不用先看选项也能得出选considering,不是选answering这一个常识性错误。

  三. 上下百度,逻辑上浮

  由于完型填空文章的内容和逻辑的连贯性和完整性,经常会出现上下文词汇之间的语意关联。即上文中有些不能确定的选项可能会在下文中出现,或下文中不能确定的选项在上文中已经出现过。在我们平时的完型练习中这种出题方式并不少见。有的可能是原词再现,有的可能是同词根的词出现,还有可能出现的是同义词,近义词。不管什么以形式出现,这往往就是我们要的答案。只要我们能够上下百度,逻辑上浮,细心应对,就一定会找到正确答案的。

  例如:

  Conflict, 38 as opposition among social units or individuals directed against one another, is 39 from competition, which 40 opposition among social units 41 seeking to obtain something which is 42 inadequate supply.

  既然我们已经知道这一段是讲概念的解释:那么我们通过上下百度句子,注意不要看选项,以免掉入出题人设下的陷阱。我们发现:这里说的是冲突,是一种在社会团体或者个体之间被引导着彼此反对的对抗!然而竞争是社会团体寻求战友匮乏供给的另一种对抗。通过上下百度句与句内在关系,我们不能看出其中的逻辑关系开始明朗,意思开始清晰出水,真相上浮。不难看出考察39,40的两个动词应该是下定义的意思。这个时候就是你看选项的时候,直接去找下定义的动词含义,不难得出正确答案就是:39defined(下定义)40means(意思是),这样的选项不仅准确,也绕开了出题人的陷阱,节省了不必要的时间浪费,达到脱颖而出,秒杀答案的奇妙效果。

  四. 瞻前后顾,逻、法审度

  Conflict, 38 as opposition among social units or individuals directed against one another, is 39 from competition, which 40 opposition among social units 41 seeking to obtain something which is 42 inadequate supply.

  既然我们已经清楚了38,40的答案,了解了冲突,竞争的概念,当然就可以通过瞻前后顾,逻(辑)、(语)法审度得出39 肯定是两个概念不一样的意思,选出distinguished不就呼之欲出了么,42 根据词法短语in…supply,选出in很容易。再瞻前后顾,根据逻辑常识推理,既然社会供给匮乏,大家竞争的目的不是共享,而是独自占有,才是竞争啊!所以41不就是independently么?

  五. 生词重复,构词归属

  inadequate supply. Competitors may not know about one another, while those who 43 in a conflict do. Conflict and competition are both 44 of opposition.生词出现有时候不一定可怕,生词也许就是构词法(派生=前缀+后缀;合成,拼缀,转化,)的规律重组,例如学生不认识inadequate,但是这是构词法中派生用法的前缀法构词in+aduquate,in是反义词,知道adequate充足的当然就知道inadequate是不充足;匮乏的。同理,知道了oppose动词反对对抗,当然知道生词opposition是名词反对,对抗。佟丽丽,知道了compete动词竞争,当然它的后缀法规律competition, competitors不是生词,即使忘记了,也能推理出来一个是竞争名词,一个是竞争者。其他生词理解也可以照单抓药。

  六. 合理得出,前后围堵;答案自出,避实就熟

  Conflict, 38 as opposition among social units or individuals directed against one another, is 39 from competition, which 40 opposition among social units 41 seeking to obtain something which is 42 inadequate supply. 在分析这段文段时候,我们的妙招思路就是先利用逻辑,语法,词法,语篇分析,合理得出38,40,42,最后前后围堵41,利用军事常识:围点打援的方法,即:先避实就熟(38,40,2)孤立了难点41,最后根据所有已知的意思,推理未知41,区别的distinguished这个答案不也就水落石出,答案自出了么?

  七. 跳空填补,审核为主;通盘顺路,查缺漏堵!

  例如:

  The meaning of opposition has been stated as a process by which social units function in the disservice of one another, opposition is 45 contrasted to cooperation, a 46 by which social units function in the service of one another.

  45空,可以跳空,先看46,46与前面的a process by which social units function in the disservice of one another 几乎结构一样,属于写作五大黄金满分修辞里面的parallel(平行结构),46答案是process,再根据上下百度,前段的冲突conflict,与竞争competition的本质区别描述,以及文章上文概念区别描述的审核,还有语法逻辑关系,得出了:45空就是:因此,对抗中,竞争与冲突是矛盾的对立统一,当然45答案就是thus这一结论。

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