作者: 发布时间:2018-07-30 08:09:05 本文来源于:

  【2016•上海】Reading Comprehension


  Section A


  Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.


  In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in the art of management, developed the mow famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is the idea that people instinctively 51 work and will do anything to avoid it. Theory Y is the view that everyone has the potential to find satisfaction in work.


  In any case, despite so much evidence to the 52 , many managers still agree to Theory X. They believe, 53 , that their employees need constant supervision if they are to work effectively, or that decisions must be imposed from 54 without consultation. This, of course, makes for authoritarian (专制的) managers.


  Different cultures have different ways of 55 people. Unlike authoritarian management, some cultures, particularly in Asia, are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making—all members of the department or work group are asked to 56 to this process. This is management by the collective opinion. Many western companies have tried to imitate such Asian ways of doing things, which are based on general 57 . Some experts say that women will become more effective managers than men because they have the power to reach common goals in a way that traditional 58 managers cannot.


  A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own initiative, to make decisions on their own without 59 managers first. This empowerment (授权) has been part of the trend towards downsizing: 60 the number of management layers in companies. After de-layering in this way, a company may be 61 with just a top level of senior managers, front-line managers and employees with direct contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation (委托) much further than has 62 been the case. Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management control to 63 that the overall business plan is being followed, and that operations become more profitable under the new organization, rather than less.


  Another trend is off-site or 64 management, where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses. Project managers evaluate the 65 of the team members in terms of what they produce for projects, rather than the amount of time they spend on them.


  51. A. desire B. seek C. lose D. dislike


  52. A. contrary B. expectation C. degree D. extreme


  53. A. vice versa B. for example C. however D. otherwise


  54. A. outside B. inside C. below D. above


  55. A. replacing B. assessing C. managing D. encouraging


  56. A. refer B. contribute C. object D. apply


  57. A. agreement B. practice C. election D. impression


  58. A. bossy B. experienced C. western D. male


  59. A. asking B. training C. warning D. firing


  60. A. doubling B. maintaining C. reducing D. estimating


  61. A. honored B. left C. crowded D. compared


  62. A. economically B. traditionally C. inadequately D. occasionally


  63. A. deny B. admit C. assume D. ensure


  64. A. virtual B. ineffective C. day-to-day D. on-the-scene


  65. A. opinion B. risk C. performance D. attractiveness


  【答案】51. D 52. A 53. B 54. D 55. C 56. B 57. A 58. D 59. A 60. C


  61. B 62. B 63. D 64. A 65. C




  52.A 考查上下文串联。短语to the contrary相反的;to the degree在某种程度上;to the extreme走向极端;在文章第一段中提到了X理论,大多数人都缺乏进取心和责任心,不愿对人和事负责,没有什么雄心壮志,不喜欢负责任,宁可被领导。而Y理论认为大多数人愿意对工作、对他人负责,人们愿意实行自我管理和自我控制来完成应当完成的目标。这是两种完全相反的理论,尽管对于这两种完全相反的理论有很多的证据,很多管理人仍然同意X理论。故A正确。


  53.B 考查上下文串联。本句中for example表示举例说明;这些管理人仍然同意X理论,例如他们认为如果要员工效率高,就需要给与他们不断的监督。这属于X理论的举例说明。故B正确。


  54.D 考查上下文串联。根据后句“...makes for authoritarian managers....”可知这属于专制的管理方法,他们的决定是来自上而下的,没有任何商量的余地。故D项“above上面的”正确。


  57.A 考查上下文串联。名词agreement同意;practice练习,做法;election选举;impression印象;亚洲人使用协商式的管理方法,这种方法是建立在共同的协议基础之上的,西方人也想学习这样的管理方法。故A正确。


  58.D 考查上下文串联。根据前半句“....women will become more effective managers than men....”可知有些专家认为女性比男性管理更高效。因为女性更有亲和力,比男性管理人更容易与别人达成一致的目标。故D正确。


  59.A 考查上下文串联。根据前句“... encourage employees to use their own initiative...鼓励员工使用自己的首创精神”,也就是说在做出决定的时候不要请示上级经理,自己做出决定即可。故A项正确。


  60.C 考查上下文串联。根据前句“the trend towards downsizing缩小规模的趋势”,也就是要减少管理层的数量,可以直接做出决定而不需要请示上级。故动词“reduce减少”符合上下文串联。


  61.B 考查短语辨析辨析。动词be honored with被授予;be left with留下,剩下;be crowded with挤满;be compared with与..相比;通过这种方法,公司只剩下高层管理者和前线的与公众直接联系的一线管理人。省略了很多中央环节,提高了管理的效益。故B正确。


  62.B 考查副词辨析。副词economically经济地;traditionally传统地;inadequately不充分地;occasionally偶尔地;根据后句“Empowerment and delegation mean new forms of management...”可知授权管理是一个新型的管理方法,与传统的管理模式不一样。故B正确。


  63.D 考查动词辨析。动词deny否认;admit承认;assume假定,设想;ensure保证,确保;授权管理是一种新型的管理方法,省略了中央管理环节,保证了整个商业计划被采用。根据句意可知D正确。


  64.A 考查上下文串联。形容词virtual虚拟的;ineffective低效的;day-to-day日常的;on-the-scene现场的;根据后句“where teams of people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own houses”可知在这种新型的管理方法中,人们都是通过邮件和网络联系,说明这种一种新型通过虚拟网络进行的管理方法。故A正确。
















  How long can human beings live? Most scientists who study old age think that the human body is ___1___ to live no longer than 120 years. However, 110 years is probably the longest that anyone could hope to live —— if he or she is ___2___ healthy and lucky. Some scientists even say we can live as long as 130 years! Yet, our cells simply cannot continue to reproduce ___3___. They wear out, and as a result, we get old and ___4___ die.


  Even though we can’t live forever, we are living a ___5___ life than ever before. In 1900, the average American life span (寿命) was only 47 years, but today it is 75 years!


  When does old age begin then? Sixty-five may be out-of-date as the ___6___ line between middle age and old age. After all, many older people don’t begin to experience physical and mental ___7___ until after age 75.


  People are living longer because more people ___8___ childhood. Before modern medicine changed the laws of nature, many children died of common childhood ___9___. Now that the chances of dying ___10___ are much lower, the chances of living long are much higher due to better diets and health care.


  On the whole, our population is getting older. The ___11___ in our population will have lasting effects on our social development and our way of life. Some people fear such changes will be for the worse, while some see ___12___, not disaster, many men and women in their “golden years” are healthy, still active, and young in ___13___ if not in age.


  As the society grows old, we need the ___14___ of our older citizens. With long lives ahead of them, they need to ___15___ active and devoted.


  1. A. designed B. selected C. improved D. discovered


  2. A. completely B. generally C. apparently D. extremely


  3. A. rapidly B. harmlessly C. endlessly D. separately


  4. A. eventually B. hopelessly C. automatically D. desperately


  5. A. busier B. longer C. richer D. happier


  6. A. finishing B. guiding C. waiting D. dividing


  7. A. stress B. damage C. decline D. failure


  8. A. survive B. enjoy C. remember D. value


  9. A. problems B. fears C. worries D. diseases


  10. A. poor B. young C. sick D. quiet


  11. A. changes B. recovery C. safety D. increases


  12. A. dreams B. chances C. strengths D. choices


  13. A. mind B. appearance C. voice D. movement


  14. A. protection B. suggestions C. contributions D. permission


  15. A. sound B. appear C. turn D. stay






  2.D考查副词及语境的理解。句意:然而110岁可能是人们希望能活的最长的寿命-如果他非常的健康和幸运。completely 完全地;generally 一般地;apparently 显然地;extremely极其,非常。根据句意可知,如果一个人非常的健康而且很幸运,人们希望能活到110岁。故选D。


  3.C考查副词及语境的理解。句意:然而我们的细胞不会一直无止境的再生。rapidly 快速地;harmlessly 无害地;endlessly 无止境的;separately 分离地,分开地。根据文意可知,因为人体的细胞不会无止境的再生,因此人的寿命是有限的。因此应选C。


  4.A考查副词及语境的理解。句意:他们(细胞)慢慢消耗尽,结果我们就会变老最终死亡。eventually 最终;hopelessly 没有希望地;automatically 自动地;desperately绝望地,自暴自弃地。根据句意可知选A。


  5.B考查形容词及语境的理解。句意:尽管我们不能永久的活着,我们的寿命比以前是更长了。busier 更忙的;longer 更长的;richer 更富有的;happier更开心的。根据这一段的内容可知,现在人的寿命比以前更长了。故选B。

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