2016-2018三年高考英语分项解析--语法填空 - 英语试题 - 《高中生》杂志 ● 新高考网
2016-2018三年高考英语分项解析--语法填空
作者: 发布时间:2018-07-30 08:07:48 本文来源于:
  

  【2018•全国I】阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

 

  According to a review of evidence in a medical journal, runners live three years ___61___(long) than non-runners. You don't have to run fast or for long___62___(see)the benefit. You may drink, smoke, be overweight and still reduce your risk of ___63___ (die) early by running. While running regularly cann't make you live forever, the review says it ___64___ (be) more effective at lengthening life___65___ walking, cycling or swimming. Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014___66___showed a mere five to 10 minutes A day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all ___67___(cause).

 

  The best exercise is one that you enjoy and will do. But otherwise… it's probably running. To avoid knee pain, you can run on soft surfaces, do exercises to___68___(strength)your leg muscles(肌肉),avoid hills and get good running shoes. Running is cheap, easy and it's always___69___(energy).If you are time poor, you need run for only half the time to get the same benefits as other sports, so perhaps we should all give___70___a try.

 

  【答案】61. longer

 

  62. to see 63. dying

 

  64. is 65. than

 

  66. that \which

 

  67. causes 68. strength

 

  69. energetic

 

  70. it \running

 

  【解析】本文是一篇说明文。文章讲述了跑步的好处,它可以帮助人们延年益寿。

 

  63. 考查动名词。你也许喝酒、吸烟或超重,但仍然通过跑步会减少早亡的风险。此处of是介词,其后用动名词。故填dying。

 

  64. 考查动词的时态。医学报告显示:跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。这里叙述的是一个事实,故用一般现在时。故填is。

 

  65. 考查比较句型。跑步比散步、骑车和游泳更能有效地延长寿命。根据文章中的more effective可知此处填than。

 

  66. 考查定语从句的关系词。此处a study是先行词,其在定语从句中作主语,故填that或which。

 

  点睛:本文比较难的一个题是10题。短语give it a try不容易想出来。give a try试试。Give sb sth; give sth to sb这些短语学生都很清楚。但give后加it或sth的形式,比较少见。高考复习要尽可能多的复习相关的短语,尤其是用的比较多,而课本中出现较少的短语。

 

  【2018•全国II】阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

 

  Diets have changed in China — and so too has its top crop. Since 2011,the country ___61___(grow)more corn than rice. Corn production has jumped nearly 125 percent over ___62___ past 25 years, while rice has increased only 7 percent.

 

  A taste for meat is ___63___ (actual) behind the change: An important part of its corn is used to feed chickens, pigs, and cattle. Another reason for corn's rise: The government encourages farmers to grow corn instead of rice ___64___ (improve) water quality. Corn uses less water ___65___ rice and creates less fertilizer(化肥) runoff. This switch has decreased ___66___ (pollute) in the country's major lakes and reservoirs and made drinking water safer for people.

 

  According to the World Bank, China accounts for about 30 percent of total ___67___ (globe)fertilizer consumption. The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—when the government ___68___ (start) a soil-testing program ___69___ gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers - and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons. That prevented the emission(排放) of 51.8 million tons of carbon dioxide. China's approach to protecting its environment while ___70___ (feed) its citizens "offers useful lessons for agriculture and food policymakers worldwide." says the bank's Juergen Voegele.

 

  【答案】61. has grown

 

  62. the 63. actually

 

  64. to improve

 

  65. than 66. pollution

 

  67. global 68. started

 

  69. that/which

 

  70. feeding

 

  【解析】本文是一篇说明文。文中讲述了中国为保护环境在农作物种植上做了一些变化并得到了世界上的知名认识的认可。

 

  63. 考查副词。句意:对肉的需求实际上是这种变化的背后原因。句子结构完整,用副词修饰句子。故填actually。

 

  64. 考查非谓语动词。句意:为了改善水质政府鼓励农民种植玉米而不是大米。没有连词可以且谓语动词是encourages,故improve应该用非谓语动词。此处表示目的,故用不定式。故填to improve。

 

  65. 考查连词。句意:玉米比大米使用的水更少。根据关键词less可知,填比较连词。故填than。

 

  66. 考查词性转换。句意:这一转变减少了中国较大的湖泊和水库的污染,使人们的饮用水更加安全。has decreased后跟名词作宾语,故填pollution。

 

  67. 考查词性转换。句意:中国约占全球化肥总消费量的30%。fertilizer consumption是名词短语,故应该用形容词修饰。故填global。

 

  68. 考查谓语动词。句意:在2005年政府开始了一项土壤测试项目。本句是when引导的定语从句,由于时间是2005年,故用过去时。故填started。

 

  69. 考查定语从句关系词。根据空后的谓语动词gives可知,该空缺少主语,指代program并且引导后面的句子。指物用that/which,故填that或者which。

 

  70. 考查省略句。句意:中国在养活了中国人民的同时又保护了环境。这一做法为全世界的农业和粮食政策制定人提供了很有用的经验。空格处表示正在进行的动作,while后面省略掉了China is,省略句的原则:在时间状语从句、条件状语从句、,让步状语从句中,如果从句的主语和主句的主语一致且含有be动词时,那么可以把主语和be动词一块省略。故填feeding。

 

  点睛:学会分析句子成分。The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005 - when the government started a soil-testing program which /that gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers - and 2011,fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons. 这句话中有两个定语从句。一个是关系副词when引导的定语从句,先行词是2005,the government是主语,a soil-testing program是宾语,故此空缺少谓语动词,我们可以看出时态是一般过去时。另一个是关系代词指代program引导的定语从句,先行词是program,gives是第三人称谓语动词,可以看出是考查关系词。代指物并作主语,关系词要用that/which。

 

  【2018•全国III】阅读下面短文,在空白处填入1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

 

  I'm not sure _____61_____ is more frightened, me or the female gorilla(大猩猩)that suddenly appears out of nowhere. I'm walking on a path in the forest in the Central African Republic. Unexpectedly, I'm face-to-face with the gorilla, who begins screaming at ____62____ top of her lungs. That makes her baby scream, and then a 400-pound male appears. He screams the

 

  ___63___(loud)of all. The noise shakes the trees as the male beats his chest and charges toward me. I quickly lower myself, ducking my head to avoid ____64____(look) directly into his eyes so he doesn't feel____65____(challenge).

 

  My name is Mireya Mayor. I'm a ___66___(science)who studies animals such as apes and monkeys. I was searching ___67___ these three western lowland gorillas I'd been observing. No one had seen them for hours, and my colleagues and I were worried.

 

  When the gorillas and I frightened each other, I was just glad to find ____68____(they) alive. True to a gorilla's unaggressive nature, the huge animal ____69____(mean)me no real harm. He was just saying: "I'm king of this forest, and here is your reminder!" Once his message was delivered, he allowed me ____70____ (stay)and watch.

 

  【答案】61. which

 

  62. the 63. loudest

 

  64. looking

 

  65. challenged

 

  66. scientist

 

  67. for 68. them

 

  69. meant 70. to stay

 

  【解析】本文为记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者在中非偶遇大猩猩,彼此惊恐的经历。

 

  64. 考查动词。动词avoid后要加doing。此处表示避免直接看他的眼睛。用looking。

 

  65. 考查非谓语。根据语境可知,此处表示不直视他的眼睛,他就不会感到被挑战性。feel为系动词,表示“被挑战”,用过去分词challenged。

 

  66. 考查名词。根据语境可知,我是一名科学家。scientist科学家。

 

  【点睛】此题考查固定搭配较多,其中第2,4,7,10 都为固定搭配,对于这类题目我们需要熟练掌握动词的固定搭配以及介词短语。而此题的第一题则考查从句,对于从句我们可以通过分析句子成分确定连接词的选择。如本题为宾语从句,宾语从句中缺主语,所以应该从连接代词who,whom,what,which,whose,再根据指人做主语可判断用which。

 

  【2018•浙江】阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。

 

  Few people I know seem to have much desire or time to cook. Making Chinese ___56___(dish) is seen as especially troublesome. Many westerners ___57___ come to China cook much less than in their own countries once they realize how cheap ___58___ can be to eat out. I still remember ___59___ (visit) a friend who’d lived here for five years and I ___60___(shock) when I learnt she hadn’t cooked once in all that time.

 

  While regularly eating out seems to ___61___(become) common for many young people in recent years, it’s not without a cost. The obvious one is money; eating out once or twice a week may be ___62___(afford) but doing this most days adds up. There could be an even ___63___ (high) cost on your health. Researchers have found that there is a direct link between the increase in food eaten outside the home and the rise in ___64___(weigh) problems.

 

  If you are not going to suffer this problem, then I suggest that the next time you go to your mum’s home ___65___ dinner, get a few cooking tips from her. Cooking food can be fun. You might also begin to notice the effects not only on your health but in your pocket.

 

  【答案】56. dishes

 

  57. who/that

 

  58. it 59. visiting

 

  60. was shocked

 

  61. have become

 

  62. affordable

 

  63. higher 64. weight

 

  65. for

 

  【解析】作者描述了人们喜欢在外面吃饭的现象,分析了其对身体和花费的不良影响,建议我们在家做饭。

 

  56. 考查名词。此处指中国菜,表示泛指应该用名词复数,故填dishes。

 

  57. 考查关系代词。句中包含定语从句,先行词是westerners指人,在定语从句中做主语,用关系代词who/that引导,故填who/that。

 

  60. 考查形容词。此处表示我感到很震惊。shock的主语是I,用形容词和系动词组成系表结构,表示过去发生的事,系动词用过去式。故填was shocked。

 

  61. 考查动词时态。根据时间状语in recent years可知用现在完成时,seems to后用动词原形,故填have become。

 

  62. 考查形容词。此处表示一周一两次外出吃饭是负担得起的,系动词be后用形容词作表语,表示“负担得起的”故填affordable。

 

  63. 考查形容词比较级。此处修饰名词cost用形容词,由even表示程度修饰比较级,故填higher。

 

  64. 考查名词。此处指体重问题,用名词修饰problems,故填weight。

 

  65. 考查介词。表示去母亲家去吃饭,表示目的用介词for,故填for。

 

  2017年高考题

 

  语法填空

 

  [2017•全国卷Ⅰ]

 

  阅读下面短文,在空白处填入 1个适当的单词或括号内单词的正确形式。

 

  There has been a recent trend in the food service industry towards lower fat content and less salt. This trend, which was started by the medical community(医学界) 61.________ a method of fighting heart disease, has had some unintended side 62.________ (effect) such as overweight and heart disease—the very thing the medical community was trying to fight.

 

  Fat and salt are very important parts of a diet. They are required 63.________ (process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions. When fat and salt 64.________ (remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something. As 65.________ result, people will eat more food to try to make up for that something missing. Even 66.________ (bad), the amount of fast food that people eat goes up. Fast food 67.________ (be) full of fat and salt; by 68.________ (eat) more fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet.

 

  Having enough fat and salt in your meals will reduce the urge to snack(吃点心) between meals and will improve the taste of your food. However, be 69.________ (care) not to go to extremes. Like anything, it is possible to have too much of both, 70.________ is not good for the health.

 

  【文章大意】 本文是一篇说明文。文章讲述了对于食物中的脂肪和盐分,人们的态度不一。脂肪和盐分对于健康来说是必不可少的,但如果人们摄入过多的脂肪和盐分,自身的健康将会受到损害。

 

  61. as 考查介词。这个做法最初是医学界作为一种对抗心脏病的形式开始的。as表示“作为”,故填as。

 

  62. effects 考查名词复数。分析语境可知作者表达的意思是“一些意料之外的副作用”,根据前文的some可知副作用有很多,故填effects。

 

  66. worse 考查比较级。更糟糕的是,人们所吃的快餐的数量增加了。故填worse。

 

  67. is 考查主谓一致。fast food的意思是“快餐”,表示一类食物,为不可数名词,谓语动词用单数形式。故填is。

 

  68. eating 考查动名词。根据前文中的by可知此处应该填eat的动名词形式。故填eating。

 

  69. careful 考查形容词。分析语境可知be后面应该用形容词作表语,故填careful。

 

  70. which 考查非限制性定语从句。分析句子结构可知which is not good for the health为非限制性定语从句,先行词为前文中的to have too much of both,即“摄入过多的脂肪和盐”。故填which。

 

  【名师点睛】

 

  语法填空题的考查形式为:在一篇200词左右的语篇(短文或对话)中留出10处空白,部分空白的后面给出单词的基本形式,要求考生根据上下文填写空白处所需的内容或所提供单词的正确形式,所填写词语不得多于3个单词。考生须灵活运用语法知识,如单词词性、单词时态、名词单复数、连接词、代词、冠词等判断各空白处应填写的内容。具体考查形式有以下几种:

 

  一、给出动词基本形态,填写词性词形转化(转为名词、形容词),或填写谓语部分,可能需要填写两个或三个词,或是填写非谓语动词;

 

  二、给出形容词,需要填写比较级、最高级,或词性词形转化,转化为副词,或是填写反义词(前缀);

 

  三、给出副词,填写比较级、最高级,或是填写反义词;

 

  四、不给提示词,主要填写介词、连词、冠词和代词。

 

  有提示词:考查谓语动词,非谓语动词,形容词,副词

 

  例如第62题has had some unintended side 62 (effect) such as overweight and heart disease,给出了提示词effect。考生可以从词性变化和单复数两方面考虑,effect可变为形容词effective,变为副词effectively,分析语境可知划线处应该填名词,不需要做词性上的变化。所以考生可以从单复数方面考虑,根据划线处前的some可知应该填名词的复数形式。所以考生可以确定正确答案为effects。

 

  无提示词:考查冠词,介词,连词,代词

 

  例如第70题it is possible to have too much of both, 70 is not good for the health. 结合语境可知作者要表达“很可能摄入过多的脂肪和盐,那对健康没有好处”的意思。分析可知which is not good for the health为非限制性定语从句,先行词为前文中的have too much of both“摄入过多的脂肪和盐”,所以填which。

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