2016-2018三年高考英语分项解析--短文改错
作者: 发布时间:2018-07-30 08:05:11 本文来源于:
  
 

  【2018•全国I】短文改错

 

  假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。

 

  增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(Λ),并在其下面写出该加的次。

 

  删除:把多余的用斜线(\)划掉。

 

  修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

 

  注意:(1).每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

 

  (2).只允许修改10处,多者(从第l1处起)不计分。

 

  71. During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a change there. The first time I went there, they were living in a small house with dogs, ducks, and another animals. Last winter when I went here again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. They also Iwent here again,they had a big separnte house to raise dozens of chicken.They also had a small pond,which they raised fish. My grandpa said last summer they earned quite a lot by sell the fish. I felt happily that their life had improved. At the end of our trip, I told my father that I planned to return for every two years, but he agreed.

 

  【解析】本文是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者在去年寒假期间和父亲去乡下拜访爷爷奶奶过程中的所见所闻,由此讲述了乡下的巨大变化。

 

  3. another改成other 考查形容词的用法。他们住在一个小房子里,院子里有狗、鸭子和其他牲畜。根据句意可知,将another改成other。

 

  4. here改成there 考查副词及语意理解。去年冬天我又一次去了那里。故将here改成there。

 

  5. chicken改成chickens 考查名词复数。他们拥有一个大的独立住宅,还养了许多只鸡。根据前文的dozens of可知,其后用名词复数形式。

 

  7. sell改成selling 考查动名词。去年夏天他们通过卖鱼挣了一大笔钱。此处介词by后用动名词,故用selling。

 

  8. happily改成happy 考查形容词作表语。他们的生活有了很大提高,我感到很高兴。此处形容词作表语,故将happily改成happy。

 

  9. 删除for 考查介词的用法。时间名词有every,each,last等词修饰时,其前不用介词。故删除for。

 

  10. but改成and 考查并列连词的用法。我计划每两年回来一次,他同意了。此处是并列关系,故将but改成and。

 

  点睛:本文中第9处改错是学生容易忽视的考点。时间名词有every,each,last,this,that等词修饰时,其前不用介词。

 

  例:We are going to fish this morning.

 

  I finished the course last winter holiday.

 

  【2018•全国II】短文改错

 

  假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文,文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处,每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删改或修改。

 

  增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(Λ),并在其下面写出该加的词。

 

  删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

 

  修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

 

  注意:(1).每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

 

  (2).只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。

 

  71. When I was little, Friday’s night was our family game night. After supper, we would play card games of all sort in the sitting room. As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not to let me. They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain. Still I unwilling to play the games for them sometimes. I didn’t realize how right my parents are until I entered high school. The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life.

 

  【解析】这是一篇记叙文。文章讲述了作者的个人经历。小时候周五夜晚家长不允许作者看卡通片,而是让他和他们一块儿玩扑克牌游戏。长大后作者才明白,这些纸牌游戏在后来的生活中很有用。

 

  第一处:考查名词。名词作定语,往往表明被修饰名词的时间、地点、类别、目的或用途、材料或来源等。名词所有格作定语则强调与被修饰的词的所有关系或表示逻辑上的谓语关系。此处表示“星期五晚上”,并不是所有关系,故把Friday’s改为Friday。

 

  第二处:考查名词单复数。all表示三者或三者以上,后用名词复数。故把sort改为sorts。

 

  第三处:考查冠词。这里表示“作为一个孩子”,a用在表示泛指的单数名词前,the表示特指。故把the改为a。

 

  第四处:考查动词不定式。句意:无论我要求多少次要去看(卡通片)。用不定式表示目的。故把watching改为watch。

 

  第五处:考查情态动词。would后跟动词原形,故把to删除。

 

  第十处:考查宾语从句的连接词。句意:当我是个孩子的时候我父母教给我的纸牌游戏在我日后的生活中证明非常有用。宾语从句连接词并不是表示地点状语,而是时间状语。故把where改为when。

 

  点晴:名词作定语与名词所有格作定语的区别。一般来说,名词作定语通常说明被修饰的词的性质,而名词所有格作定语则强调对被修饰的词的所有(权)关系或表示逻辑上的谓语关系。“the Party members(党员)”中,名词定语表示members的性质;“the Party’s calls(党的号召)”中,Party具有动作发出者的作用,calls虽然是名词,却具有动作的含义。a student teacher实习教师,a student’s teacher一位学生的老师。

 

  【2018•全国III】假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文,文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处,每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删改或修改。

 

  增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(Λ),并在其下面写出该加的词。

 

  删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

 

  修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

 

  注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

 

  2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。

 

  It was Monday morning, and the writing class had just begin. Everyone was silent, wait to see who would be called upon to read his and her paragraph aloud. Some of us were confident and eager take part in the class activity, others were nervous and anxious. I had done myself homework but I was shy. I was afraid that to speak in front of a larger group of people. At that moment, I remembered that my father once said, "The classroom is a place for learning and that include leaning from textbooks, and mistake as well." Immediate, I raised my hand.

 

  【解析】本文为记叙文。文章主要介绍了写作课上作者克服恐惧心理主动回答问题的故事。

 

  第一处:考查时态构成。根据语境可知,句子用过去完成时,过去完成时的构成是had done,所以begin要改为begun。

 

  第二处:考查非谓语动词。根据句子成分分析,本句有谓语为was,而且没有连词,与主语是主动关系,所以wait 要用非谓语waiting,表伴随。

 

  第三处:考查连词。句意:每个人都沉默了,等着看谁会被要求朗读他或她的段落。一次只能叫一个人,男女两者是选择关系,故把and改为or。

 

  第九处:考查名词单复数。错误不是一个,所以要用复数。

 

  第十处:考查副词。此处要用副词在句中做状语修饰整个句子,故把immediate改为immediately。

 

  【点睛】此题中的难点为非谓语动词的考查,如第二处错误,第五处错误,第二处解答时要分析句子结构,根据句中是否有谓语,连词来判断使用谓语还是非谓语,再根据句子主语everyone,与wait 之间为主动关系,所以要用现在分词。而第五处则主要考查be afraid to do 这一短语。

 

  2017年高考题

 

  短文改错记叙文

 

  [2017•全国卷Ⅰ]

 

  假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。

 

  增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。

 

  删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

 

  修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

 

  注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

 

  2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。

 

  In the summer holiday following my eighteen birthday, I took driving lessons. I still remember how hard first day was. Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the instructor's orders, so once I started the car, my mind goes blank. I forgot what he had said to me altogether. The instructor kept repeating the word, “Speed up!” “Slow down!” “Turning left!” I was so much nervous that I could hardly tell which direction was left. A few minutes late, the instructor asked me to stop the car. It was a relief and I came to a suddenly stop just in the middle on the road.

 

  [答案]

 

  In the summer holiday following my eighteen birthday, I took driving lessons. I still

 

  eighteenth

 

  remember how hard ∧first day was. Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the

 

  the/my

 

  instructor's orders, so once I started the car, my mind goes blank. I forgot what he had said to me

 

  but/yet went

 

  altogether. The instructor kept repeating the word, “Speed up!” “Slow down!”“Turning

 

  words Turn

 

  left!” I was so nervous that I could hardly tell which direction was left. A few minutes late, the instructor asked me to stop the car. It was a relief and I came to a suddenly stop just in the

 

  later sudden

 

  middle on the road.

 

  of

 

  【文章大意】 本文是一篇记叙文。文章主要讲述了作者在暑假期间考驾照第一天发生的故事。

 

  3. so改为but或yet 考查连词。根据句意可知作者本以为自己已经掌握了教练说的话,结果一发动车,脑中一片空白。前后文为转折关系,故将so改为but或yet。

 

  4. goes改为went 考查时态。根据前文中的started可知时态为一般过去时,故将goes改为went。

 

  5. word改为words 考查名词复数。教练一直喊“加速”“减速”“左转”。 word表示某人说的话时是可数名词,故将word改为words。

 

  6. Turning改为Turn 考查非谓语动词。分析语境可知教练的话“加速”“减速”“左转”都是祈使句,根据前文“Speed up!” “Slow down!”也可以看得出来。祈使句应该用动词原形开头,故将Turning改为Turn。

 

  9. suddenly改为sudden 考查形容词。“我”紧急刹车。suddenly是副词,表示“意外地,忽然地”。 sudden为形容词,表示“突然的,迅速的”,修饰名词stop。a sudden stop表示“急刹车”。故将suddenly改为sudden。

 

  10. on改为of 考查介词。分析语境可知作者表示“在路中间急刹车”。on the road表示“在路上”, the middle of the road表示“路的中央”,强调的是“the middle”。故将on改为of。

 

  【名师点睛】

 

  1. 谓语动词的错误是历年考试的重点和热点,常见动词错误类型有①一般现在时与一般过去时错用;②and前后动词时态不一致;③主谓不一致;④缺少动词,特别是be动词;⑤第三人称单数形式错用;⑥主动语态和被动语态错用。

 

  2. 名词的常见错误:单复数名词错用,可数名词与不可数名词错用。

 

  例如第75题将 word改为words。word的意思主要是“单词,消息”,words 可以表示为word的复数,也表示某人说的话。这里指教练说的那些话,故将word改为words。

 

  3. 冠词错误:误用a和an(根据单词的第一个音素来判定);误用a/an和the(固定搭配,或泛指、特指;多冠词或少冠词)

 

  例如第72题 first前加the或my。句中特指开始学驾照的第一天,所以在first前加上the。也可以加上my,my first day表示“我(学驾照)的第一天”。故在first前加the或my。

 

  4. 形容词和副词错误:系动词(am/is/are/was/were/become/go)和感官性动词(smell/feel)后用形容词;词性的误用(形容词修饰名词;副词修饰动词和形容词)。

 

  例如第79题将suddenly改为sudden。suddenly是副词,表示“意外地,忽然地”。 sudden为形容词,表示“突然的;迅速的”。a sudden stop表示“急刹车”。故将suddenly改为sudden。

 

  5. 代词错误:代词的主格和宾格(I/me; he/him; she/her; we/us; they/them)错误;反身代词(myself/yourself/himself/herself/themselves/ourselves)使 用错误;代词的单数和复数使用错误;代词指代错误;多代词或少代词。

 

  6. 非谓语动词的常见错误:不定式、动名词作主语、宾语时;and连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致;介词后用动名词形式作宾语;某些动词后要求接动名词或不定式。

 

  例如第76 题将Turning改为Turn。分析语境可知教练的话“加速”,“减速”,“左转”都是祈使句,根据前文“Speed up!” “Slow down!”也可以看得出来。祈使句应该用动词原形,故将Turning改为Turn。

 

  7. 介词错误:词组中的介词误用;介词意思理解偏差;介词的多用或少用。

 

  例如第80题将 on改为of。分析语境可知作者表示“在路中间急刹车”,on the road表示“在路上”, the middle of the road表示“路的中央”,强调的是“the middle”。故将on改为of。

 

  [2017•全国卷Ⅱ]

 

  假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处。每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。

 

  增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。

 

  删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

 

  修改:在错的词下画一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

 

  注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

 

  2.只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分。

 

  Mr and Mrs Zhang all work in our school. They live far from the school,and it takes them about a hour and a half to go to work every day. In their spare time,they are interesting in planting vegetables in their garden,that is on the rooftop of their house. They often get up earlier and water the vegetables together.They have also bought for some gardening tools. Beside,they often get some useful informations from the Internet. When summer came,they will invite their students pick the fresh vegetables!

 

  [答案]

 

  Mr and Mrs Zhang all work in our school. They live far from the school,and it takes them

 

  both或

 

  about a hour and a half to go to work every day. In their spare time,they are interesting in

 

  an/one interested

 

  planting vegetables in their garden,that is on the rooftop of their house. They often get up

 

  which

 

  earlier and water the vegetables together. They have also bought some gardening tools.

 

  early

 

  Beside, they often get some useful informations from the Internet. When summer came,

 

  Besides information comes

 

  they will invite their students ∧pick the fresh vegetables!

 

  to

 

  [解析] 考查记叙文,本文主要讲了张先生和张太太的日常工作和生活。

 

  7. Beside改为Besides 考查副词的用法。besides在此表示 “除了……还”。

 

  8. informations改为information 考查不可数名词。information为不可数名词。

 

  9. came改为comes 考查动词时态。此处指“当夏天来临时”,用一般现在时。

 

  10. students后加to 考查固定结构。invite sb to do sth邀请某人做某事。

 

  【名师点睛】

 

  高考短文改错考点层次一般而言可依次分为词法的测试、句法的测试和语篇的测试三个层面。考点层次越高,就越能测试出考生运用语言的能力。低层次的考点往往侧重于语法方面的考查,而高层次的考点往往侧重于考生对文章意义方面的理解。

 

  一、词法改错

 

  词法的测试包括:定冠词和不定冠词的用法;名词的单复数和名词的所有格;动词的时态、语态、语气,情态动词和非谓语动词等;人称代词、人称代词的格、物主代词、指示代词、连接代词、不定代词等的用法;介词的搭配;并列连词、从属连词的用法;形容词、副词的区别以及比较级和最高级的用法;固定搭配和习惯用法。

 

  例如:本题中的

 

  8.informations改为information 考查名词单复数

 

  二、句法改错

 

  句法的测试包括:主谓语在数上的一致性;名词性从句、定语从句和强调句;句子结构的连贯性、完整性、对等性和逻辑性。

 

  例如:

 

  4.that改为which 考查非限制性定语从句。

 

  三、语篇改错

 

  语篇的测试包括:上下文的时态是否一致;上下文中的代词指代是否一致;上下文中的逻辑关系是否一致。例如:

 

  9.came改为comes 考查时态

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