一般过去时和过去进行时
作者: 发布时间:2018-07-06 08:26:07 本文来源于:

 

   探究发现

  ①China’s first manned spaceship lifted off at 9 a.m. on Wednesday, October 15th, 2003 in Jiuquan, Gansu Province.

  ②The launch was very successful.

  ③During the 21­hour space flight, the Shenzhou Ⅴ circled the earth 14 times.

  ④He was also able to speak with his wife and 8­year­old son.

  ⑤At 6:23 a.m. on October 16th, Yang Liwei landed in Inner Mongolia safely.

  ⑥When the spaceship was lifting off, I could really feel the high gravity.

  ⑦While the spaceship was circling the earth for the sixth time, Yang Liwei spoke with ground control in Gansu.

  ⑧While he was sleeping, the spaceship circled the earth twice.

  ⑨The naughty boys were constantly making trouble.

  ⑩He said that he was coming to see me next week.

  [我的发现]

  (1)例句①②③④⑤的时态是一般过去时。

  (2)例句⑥⑦⑧中,从句的时态是过去进行时。

  (3)例句⑨是过去进行时与always, constantly等副词连用,表示感情色彩。

  (4)例句⑩中,从句用过去进行时表示过去将来时。

  一、一般过去时

  1.构成和句式

  构成:主语+动词过去式或be (was, were)

  句式:否定句把not加在did或be后,疑问句把did或be提到主语前。

  2.用法

  (1)表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态。常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last week/month ..., just now, in 2014, two years ago, a moment ago等。

  He bought the computer five years ago.

  他五年前买的这台电脑。

  The boy fell off his bike yesterday.

  这个男孩昨天从自行车上摔了下来。

  I had two eggs and a glass of milk for breakfast this morning.

  今天早上我早餐吃了两个鸡蛋,喝了一杯牛奶。

  [即时演练1]  用所给词的适当形式填空

  ①(2015·福建高考改编)To my delight, I was_chosen (choose) from hundreds of applicants to attend the opening ceremony.

  ②(2015·湖南高考改编)I wasn’t able to hide my eagerness when I asked (ask), “What do you wish me to do now?”

  ③(2015·重庆高考改编)—Is Peter coming?

  —No, he changed (change) his mind after a phone call at the last minute.

  (2)表示过去一段时间内经常发生的或习惯性的动作。常与often, usually, sometimes等表示频度的副词连用。

  When I was in the countryside, I often walked by the riverside.

  我在乡下时经常在河边散步。

  Her father usually did some housework at home last year.

  去年,她爸爸在家常做些家务。

  [名师点津] 表示过去习惯性的动作,也可用used to或would, would比used to更正式,但没有“现在已无此习惯”的含义。

  I was once weak at maths and used to doubt my ability to study maths.(2014·山东高考)

  曾经我的数学很差,我也曾怀疑过我学数学的能力。

  When he was in Hangzhou, he would take a walk after work.

  在杭州时,他常常下班后去散步。

  [即时演练2] 完成句子

  ①我在农村的时候经常去河里游泳。

  When I was in the countryside, I_often_swam_in_the_river.

  ②他过去吸烟很厉害,但现在不抽了。

  He_used_to_smoke_a_lot,_but he doesn’t now.

  (3)表示过去相继发生的一系列的连续动作。

  He got up, washed his face, had his breakfast and went to school by bus.

  他起床,洗了脸,吃了早饭就乘公交车上学去了。

  (4)在时间、条件、让步、方式等状语从句中可用一般过去时表示过去将来的动作。

  He said he would buy some presents for me if he went there.

  他说如果他去那儿的话,他将给我买些礼物。

  [即时演练3]  用所给词的适当形式填空

  ①The boy opened his eyes for a moment, looked (look) at the captain, and then died (die).

  ②Tom was late. He opened (open) the door quietly, moved in and walked (walk) carefully to his seat.

  ③Tom said he would come if I promised (promise) to wait for him.

  ④He said when she came (come) he would tell her.

  二、过去进行时

  1.构成和句式

  构成:be (was, were)+doing

  句式:否定句把not加在be后,疑问句把be提到主语前。

  2.用法

  (1)表示过去某段时间内或某一时刻正在进行的动作。常和时间状语then, at that moment/

  time, at this/that time yesterday, at ten ... o’clock yesterday等连用。

  I was doing my homework at this time yesterday.

  昨天的这个时候我正在做作业。

  We were watching TV from seven to nine last night.

  昨天晚上七点到九点我们一直都在看电视。

  [即时演练4]  用所给词的适当形式填空

  ①(2015·湖南高考改编)He must have sensed that I was_looking (look) at him. He suddenly glanced at me and said quietly, “Why are you staring at me like that?”

  ②(2014·四川高考改编) She was_phoning (phone) someone, so I nodded to her and went away.

  ③(2013·湖南高考改编)—I don’t understand why you didn’t go to the lecture yesterday afternoon.

  —I’m so sorry.But I was_doing (do) my homework.

  (2)过去进行时常与always, forever, continually 等副词连用,表示满意、称赞、惊讶、厌恶等感情色彩。

  She was always ringing me up when I was in London.

  我在伦敦时她总不停地给我打电话。(表厌烦)

  My grandmother was always helping others when she lived here.

  当我奶奶住在这儿的时候,她总是乐于帮助别人。(表赞扬)

  (3)过去进行时态表示过去将来,常用于come, go, leave, arrive, start等表示位置移动的词。

  He told me he was leaving for Shanghai tomorrow.

  他告诉我他明天将要去上海。

  [即时演练5]

  (1) 用所给词的适当形式填空

  ①(2014·重庆高考改编) James has just arrived, but I didn’t know he was_coming (come) until yesterday.

  ②(2013·大纲卷改编)We were_leaving (leave) very early so we packed the night before.

  ③(2013·江西高考改编) I was_coming (come) to visit you later that day, but I had to phone and cancel.

  (2)完成句子

  ①汤姆总是不停地抱怨他工作繁忙。

  Tom was_always_complaining_about his busy job.

  ②雷锋总是为人民做好事。

  Lei Feng was_always_doing_good_deeds for the people.

  三、一般过去时与过去进行时的区别

  一般过去时常表示在过去某时发生的动作(包括过去习惯性的动作),只强调过去发生的某一件事;过去进行时表示过去某一段时间或某一时刻正在进行的动作,强调在这一过程中所进行的动作或展开的背景。

  He drew a picture yesterday afternoon.

  昨天下午他画了一幅画。(过去发生的动作已完成)

  He was drawing a picture yesterday afternoon when I visited him.

  昨天下午当我去拜访他的时候,他正在画一幅画。(过去正在进行的动作)

  Ⅰ.用所给词的适当形式填空

  1.He said he would not go if it rained (rain).

  2.In 2000, I went to Zhengzhou and studied (study) there for four years, majoring in history.

  3.(2013·安徽高考改编)I’m calling about the apartment you advertised (advertise) the other day. Could you tell me more about it?

  4.(2013·山东高考改编)I didn’t think I’d like the movie, but actually it was (be) pretty good.

  5.Unfortunately, when I went to the office, the manager was_leaving (leave) for Shanghai, so we had only time for few words.

  6.—Have you finished reading Jane Eyre?

  —No, I was_doing (do) my homework all day yesterday.

  7.We often played (play) together when we were children.

  8.When I got on the bus, I realized (realize) I had left my wallet at home.

  9.He is always calming (calm) himself down whatever danger he may meet.

  10.—Hey, Gary, did Linda see you come in?

  —I don’t think so. She was_going (go) over her lessons then.

  Ⅱ.单句写作(完成句子)

  1.(2015·广东高考读写任务)On the first day of her work, Sally found that a class full of problems was_waiting_for_her (正在等着她).

  2.(2015·四川高考满分作文)I_learned_from_your_post (从你的发帖中我了解到) that you want to improve your Mandarin.

  3.(2015·浙江高考满分作文)Most_of_my_classmates_wanted_to_go_to_a_park (我们班大部分同学想去公园) while I had an idea of going to a nicer place. I_managed_to_persuade_my_classmates (我设法成功地说服我的同学) into accepting my idea.

  4.(2015·广东高考读写任务)Two_boys_were_fighting (两个小男孩正在打架) in the far corner, yet the rest of the class seemed not to notice them.

  5.(2015·广东高考读写任务)Finally, she_not_only_earned_their_respect (她不仅赢得了他们的尊敬), but also helped them grow to be well­behaved, confident and considerate.

  6.(2014·湖北高考满分作文)I was on my way to the bookstore and was_waiting_for_the_green_light_at_a_crossing (正在十字路口等绿灯) when a girl of about ten was knocked down by a passing car.

  单元语法项目(二)——现在完成时

  语法图解

  探究发现

  ①Venus is now eleventh in the world, and her younger sister Serena has moved up to third.

  ②Finally, in 1991, the sisters and their family moved to a safer area and since then they have never looked back.

  ③He has always been very strict with his daughters, training them hard to compete against each other.

  ④They have already expressed a keen interest in working in design after their tennis careers come to an end.

  ⑤The sisters’ road to success has been amazing.

  ⑥Since then, she has won Wimbledon and the US Open twice.

  ⑦Serena has continued to improve and make fantastic progress.

  ⑧Has tennis ever caused problems between the sisters?

  ⑨“We have played each other before and it hasn’t worried us yet!”says Venus.

  [我的发现]

  (1)例句①④⑤⑥⑧⑨表示现在之前已发生过或完成的动作或状态。

  (2)例句②③表示发生在过去某一时刻而持续到现在的动作或状态。

  (3)例句⑦表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作。

  一、现在完成时的构成

  肯定式:have/has+过去分词

  否定式:have/has not+过去分词

  疑问式:have/has+主语+过去分词

  I have already finished all the work.

  我已经做完了所有的工作。

  I have not read this book before.

  我以前没有读过这本书。

  Have you finished your homework?

  你写完作业了吗?

  二、现在完成时的用法

  1.表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的某种影响或结果。常被just, already, yet, so far, never, recently/lately等副词修饰。

  Have you heard from your brother recently?

  你最近收到你兄弟的来信了吗?

  We have already known each other.

  我们已经彼此认识了。

  [即时演练1]  用所给词的适当形式填空

  ①(2015·天津高考改编)Despite the previous rounds of talks, no agreement has_been_reached (reach) so far by the two sides.

  ②(2014·江苏高考改编)—How much do you know about the Youth Olympic Games to be held in Nanjing?

  —Well, the media have_covered (cover) it in a variety of forms.

  ③(2014·大纲卷改编)The reports went missing in 2012 and nobody has_seen (see) them since.

  2.表示发生在过去,从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。常带有for和since以及in the past/last few years, over the past years等表示一段时间的状语。

  And I have been a broadcaster in the school’s broadcasting station for years.(2015·四川高考)

  我在学校广播站担任广播员已经多年了。

  Mr. Wang has worked in the factory since he came to the city.

  自从到这个城市以来,王先生一直在这家工厂工作。

  [即时演练2] 用所给词的适当形式填空

  ①(2015·北京高考改编)In the last few years, China has_made (make) great achievements in environmental protection.

  ②(2013·北京高考改编)Shakespeare’s play Hamlet has_been_made (make) into at least ten different films over the past years.

  ③(2013·湖南高考改编)—Have you heard about the recent election?

  —Sure, it has_been (be) the only thing on the news for the last three days.

  3.表示说话前发生过一次或多次的动作,现在成为一种经验,一般译为“……过”,常带有twice, ever, never, once, before, three times等时间状语。

  I have been to Beijing twice.

  我去过北京两次了。

  I have seen the film many times.

  这部电影我看过多次了。

  [名师点津] have/has been (to)和have/has gone (to)的区别:

  have/has been (to)表示“曾经到过某地”,侧重指经历。have/has gone (to)表示某人“已经去某地了”,说话时此人可能在路上或已到那里。

  Tom has been to Japan; I have also been there.

  汤姆曾去过日本;我也去过。(现在已经回来了)

  Tom has gone to Beijing and he will come back next week.

  汤姆去北京了,下个星期回来。(现在不在这儿)

  4.用于固定句式:

  (1)This/That/It is the first (second, third ...) time that ...“这是第一(二、三……)次……”,that从句用现在完成时。

  This is the first time that I have watched stars through a telescope.

  这是我第一次通过望远镜看星星。

  (2)“This/That/It is the+最高级+名词+that从句”中,从句用现在完成时。

  This is the best film (that) I’ve ever seen.

  这是我所看过的最好的电影。

  (3)在“It+has been+一段时间+since ...”句型中,主句常用现在完成时(也可以用一般现在时)。

  It is/has been six years since I came here.

  我来这儿已经六年了。

  [名师点津] 现在完成时的时间状语

  (1)现在完成时属于现在时范围,故不能和过去的时间状语连用,如yesterday, last

  Sunday, in 1990, three years ago等。

  (2)come, arrive, buy等终止性动词不能与since或for等表示“一段时间”的状语连用。若用,必须改为be, have等延续性动词来表述。

  The film has been on for ten minutes.

  电影已开始十分钟了。

  三、现在完成时和一般过去时的区别

  1.侧重点不同

  现在完成时和一般过去时所表示的动作都发生在过去,但它们所强调的重点不同:现在完成时侧重于对现在的影响即现在的结果;而一般过去时侧重于某一动作发生在过去某个时间或某段时间,即发生的时间。

  The price of it has gone down, but I wonder if it’ll remain so.

  它的价格已经降下来了,但我不知道是否会继续保持这样。(强调现在仍然很低)

  The price of it went down for a long time last year.

  去年它的价格下降过很长一段时间。(强调发生在过去,与现在无联系)

  2.时间状语不同

  现在完成时常与already, yet, just, ever, never, before等副词以及“for+时间段”、 “since+过去时间/从句”等时间状语连用;而一般过去时则常与just now, the other day, in 2011等表示过去时间的状语连用。

  She has lived here since two years ago.

  她自从两年前就住在这里了。

  She lived here two years ago.

  两年前她住在这里。

  [即时演练3] 用所给词的适当形式填空

  ①When I was at college, I spoke (speak) three foreign languages, but I have_forgotten (forget) all except a few words of each.

  ②—I remember you were a talented pianist at college. Can you play the piano for me?

  —Sorry, I haven’t_played (not play) the piano for years.

  ③Tom wrote (write) a letter to his parents last night.

  Ⅰ.用所给词的适当形式填空

  1.(2015·重庆高考改编)In my hometown, there is always a harvest supper for the farmers after all the wheat has_been_cut (cut).

  2.His first novel has_received (receive) good reviews since it came (come) out last month.

  3.According to the report, the number of people out of work has_increased (increase) by 10% in the past two years.

  4.We haven’t_seen (not see) each other ever since we graduated from high school in 1990.

  5.With the help of high technology, more and more new substances (物质) have_been_discovered (discover) in the past years.

  6.For many years, people have_dreamed (dream) of electric cars. However, making them has been more difficult than predicted.

  7.It is the second time that I have_made (make) the mistake.

  8.(2014·福建高考改编)—Haven’t seen you for ages! Where have you been?

  —I went to Ningxia and stayed (stay) there for one year, teaching as a volunteer.

  Ⅱ.单句写作(完成句子)

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ改编)So my_classmates_and_I_have_decided_to_organize (我和同学们已决定组织) some wonderful singing and dancing performances for them, which will last about 3 hours.

  2.(2015·陕西高考改编)I_have_just_learned_from_the_advertisement (我刚刚从广告上获悉) that 20 student volunteers are wanted for the English Culture Festival.

  3.(2015·天津高考改编)Our_school_has_decided_to_donate_some_books (我们学校已决定捐赠一些图书) to your Chinese class to enhance the friendship between our two schools.

  4.(2015·四川高考改编)I_have_taught_some_foreigners (我教过一些外国人) Mandarin, which makes me have much experience in teaching.

  5.(2014·天津高考改编)In the past few years, our_city_has_changed_a_lot (我们的城市发生了很大的变化).

  6.(2014·四川高考改编)In the past few months, I’ve_made_good_preparations (我已经做好了充分的准备) and felt pretty confident.

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