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快速把握托福阅读文章主旨,行之有效的方法是这些!
作者: 发布时间:2018-12-28 09:12:53 本文来源于:
  

  我们知道,托福阅读的出题方向分为主旨题和细节题,那么如何快速把握文章主旨呢?我们为大家介绍以下三种行之有效的方法,希望对大家有所帮助~

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  1. 读标题

  首先,一篇文章的结构由标题,开头段,主体段以及结尾段组成。托福文章最人性化的一点就是三篇文章都有标题,很多同学读到这里会觉得:老师你这不是在说废话吗?不,很多人忽略了标题的作用。分析一下TPO所有文章的标题,大家会发现托福文章的标题形式一共三种:单一型,并列型以及限定条件单一型。这样的标题设计最大的作用在于,预告了本文的文章结构特点,通过固定的几类文章结构特点,我们可以预判此篇文章主要在讲什么。我们来看一个例子:Applied Artsand Fine Arts。

  先来看一下这个标题,是并列型,即有两个讨论对象,这种标题类型的文章特点是全文有两个论述对象,且排名不分前后,也就是文章会用相同的篇幅去讨论这两个对象。其次,还会有两者相同点,不同点的比较。那么我们可以预判一下本文的主旨:比较Applied Arts and Fine Arts的特点。

  可是大家想要进一步知道:比较的特点是哪一些呢?标题能够传递的信息毕竟有限,所以我们需要其他的方法来深挖一下文章主旨。

  >>>托福阅读之推理题攻略:

  http://peixun.liuxue315.cn/toefl/read/35039.shtml?ozs=76194-2709

  (将网址复制到浏览器地址栏,即可)

  2. 开头段和结尾段

  托福文章的行文结构分为三种:总分总,总分和分总。总即代表主旨所在,所以主要会在开头段和结尾段阐述。我们只需要精读这两个段落就可以了。还是以Applied Arts and Fine Arts这篇文章为例,现在我们来看一下开头段:

  Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them—clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal—it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the "applied arts." Approaching crafts from the point of view of function, we can divide them into simple categories: containers, shelters and supports. There is no way around the fact that containers, shelters, and supports must be functional. The applied arts are thus bound by the laws of physics, which pertain to both the materials used in their making and the substances and things to be contained, supported, and sheltered. These laws are universal in their application, regardless of cultural beliefs, geography, or climate. If a pot has no bottom or has large openings in its sides, it could hardly be considered a container in any traditional sense. Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied-art objects, they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits. Buildings without roofs, for example, are unusual because they depart from the norm. However, not all functional objects are exactly alike; that is why we recognize a Shang Dynasty vase as being different from an Inca vase. What varies is not the basic form but the incidental details that do not obstruct the object's primary function.

  如果大家迅速浏览一下整个段乱,会发现本段只出现了applied arts这个概念,而没有关于fine arts的描述,那么这时候大家应该反应出来本文的结构是分总,即主旨在结尾段:

  Even though the fine arts in the twentieth century often treat materials in new ways, the basic difference in attitude of artists in relation to their materials in the fine arts and the applied arts remains relatively constant. It would therefore not be too great an exaggeration to say that practitioners of the fine arts work to overcome the limitations of their materials, whereas those engaged in the applied arts work in concert with their materials.

  迅速浏览完本段会发现,fine arts和applied arts这两个概念在最后一段的都有论述。并且这句话:It would therefore not be too great an exaggeration to say that practitioners of the fine arts work to overcome the limitations of their materials, whereas those engaged in the applied arts work in concert with their materials. (因此,毫不夸张地说,纯艺术工艺品的生产者需要克服原材料的限制进行生产,而从事实用性工艺品的生产者则依据材料的性质来进行生产。)大家看到主要的对比对象是材料的使用情况。

  3. 文章小结题的introductory sentence

  还有一个抓住文章主旨的小窍门是大家可以参考文章小结题所给的那一句话,即introdectory sentence,这句话的作用主要就是来概括全文的中心大意,我们还是来看Applied Arts and Fine Arts这篇文章的文章小结题:

  Q:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

  This passage discusses fundamental differences between applied-art objects and fine-art objects.

  附:托福阅读常见素材

  一、印第安题材

  1.白令海峡移民理论

  2.印第安文化

  3.印第安宗教观

  4.印第安建筑业:大、先进。

  5.印第安手工业:好。

  6.社会组织结构:严密、分工细、凝聚力强。

  7.农业先进:A. irrigation; B. maize, squash, bean, pea。

  二、动植物题材(必考)

  1.植物学题材(不多见)

  a. 地衣、苔 、真菌、蘑菇最常见。

  b. 树冠上方生物。

  c. 植物在生态平衡中的作用。

  2.动物学题材(90%以上)

  a. 考普通动物为多。最近常考鸟类、蚂蚁、动物智能与灭绝(联系天文学与冰河理论)。

  b. 考动物进化(evolution)。

  c. 考动物的分类(classification)

  三、美国历史题材

  1.美国发展线索

  2.发现美洲阶段

  哥伦布(意),为黄金、茶叶、香料

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